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Human Immigration of Arabian Peninsula   click to down load article

Did homo sapiens immigrate the Arabian Peninsula only via Sinai, or also by crossing the Red Sea at Bab al-Mandab? Research shows that the first humans, who made knapped stone tools outside Africa, were discovered at Ubeidiya 3km south of Sea of Galilee, and are dated 1.5 million years BP. The first archaic lithic industries on the Arabian Peninsula were discovered at Shuwayhitiyah 45km north of Sakaka in Saudi Arabia with 16 sites of choppers, polyhedrons and flakes, which were dated 1.3 million years BP.

Natufian Culture   click to down load article

The Natufian Culture 14,500-11,500 years BP in Wadi an-Natuf in Jordan, which gave this early civilization its name, spread out into the Negev, parts of Syria, northeast Iraq, southeast Anatolia and northern Saudi Arabia. Experts assume that the step by step interchange between Kebaran & Mushabian Cultures started the Natufian Culture, which was the first to become fully sedentary building houses and started to farm domesticated grain called the “Neolithic Revolution”.

Al Magar Civilization & First Domestication of Horses   click to down load article

A sensational discovery in 2010 in the middle of the Saudi Arabian desert shows that 9,000 years ago horses were first domesticated here by a previously unknown civilization with sophisticated tools and art objects. Already huge horse stone sculptures of horses were created with many rock art reliefs showing horses with full gear. This means world history on this subject needs to be re-written.

Neolithic Settlements  click to down load article
This article informs about the first settlements in Jordan close to Petra at the time when the hunter gatherer clans became settled farmers. Interesting excavations of semi-submerged stone houses and later rectangular structures give some insight into their developments.

Baja Settlement     click to down load article

This neolithic settlement falls into the same time horizon as others in the area and has been erected totally hidden in the mountains near the Nabataean capital Petra

Yarmouk Culture     click to down load article

This site south of the Sea of Galilee is known for its unique female figurines indicating an early fertility cult with fertility goddess     

Desert Kites Hunting Traps   click to down load article

Unbeknown to many there are hundreds if not thousands of so-called desert kites on the Arabian Peninsula but mainly in Saudi Arabia. These are Neolithic hunting traps with up to 5 km long funel walls leading into a huge coral. There are various shapes and sizes to determin if they are 10,000 or just 2,000 years old.

Neolithic Burial Cairns & Tumuli     click to down load article 

This is a highly interesting subject, because ancient civilizations buried their dead in many different ways. From simple dug graves without any stone markers to highly sophisticated Nabataean monumental tombs every funerary practice can be found in the Middle East. This includes Neolithic tumuli and cairns in Saudi Arabia, Dilmun burial mounds in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, Hili and Hatif burial towers and domes in, all of which are older than 3,000 years.

Rajajeel Stone Columns   click to down load article

It is astonishing how human beings followed similar rituals and created comparable structures in antiquity around the world. The Rajajeel stone pillar site is no different. These huge stone stelea were erected for cultural purposes and are believed to represent anthropomorphic humans possibly depicting the deceased, but no burials were found at this site. This is a Chalcolithic semi-sedentary site about 10 km south of Sakaka close to the Garah village in northern Saudi Arabia. Rajajeel is an important ceremonial site with about 50 groups of vertical standing stone columns up to 3.5 m high and is around 6,000 years old.

Ancient Gold Mining in Saudi Arabia   click to down load article

There are very few ancient sources and detailed reports about mining activities in Saudi Arabia, but what we know is, that serious and organized mining started around 3,000 years ago in Saudi Arabia. Ancient mining activities in Saudi Arabia were strongly influenced by a varying demand for metals and gemstones to be used for tools and weapons, as well for the construction and decoration of early public buildings and palaces. During the last 50 years over 1,000 ancient mines and workings were detected and promising sites were studied in detail.

responsible for content:   Thomas Kummert, Potsdam, Germany   mail: postmaster@ancient-cultures.info